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Por Nicolás Carrillo Santarelli

La revista International Community Law Review acaba de publicar un número especial dedicado al estudio de la costumbre internacional, en el que se incluye un artículo que escribí y se titula “The Possibilities and Legitimacy of Non-State Participation in the Formation of Customary Law”.

El abstract dice: “Non-state actors can contribute to shaping customary law indirectly, through inspiration and pressure, or formally when so empowered by States. Decisions on granting non-state actors customary law-making capacities must be critically decided on a case-by-case basis, in light of the legal interests at stake, risks of making regulation subservient to their interests, and legitimacy and effectiveness considerations. Since non-state involvement in the formation or change of customary law is not limited to direct law-making capacities, different strategies can be used to both receive their input and promote their acceptance of and respect of customary law. Internal and international democratization of State decisions and collective law-making are essential if the (currently) mostly-State-centric system of custom determination is to be fair. This demands a duty to examine non-state proposals in good faith.” El artículo se encuentra aquí.

En esta página de SSRN se puede descargar el capítulo que hemos escrito con Juan Pablo Bohoslavsky, experto en deuda soberana de la Unctad, “Principles Matter”, para el libro que editamos junto a Yuefen Li, Sovereign Financing and International Law (Oxford University Press September 2013). Copio el abstract:

Abstract: 
This chapter considers the role of international law in sovereign financing, a legal area currently underdeveloped. It briefly presents the content and implications of the Principles [the UNCTAD principles for responsible sovereign lending and borrowing] and analyses whether and to what extent international law supports them. The Principles are embodied in a itself so called soft law instrument. However, a few principles are backed by international treaties and customary international law, and some others could even be considered as general principles of international law. This chapter argues that the legal character of the Principles is not determined by its soft law shell and will mainly depend on two variables: (a) the extent to which each principle is supported by hard rules of international law, including general principles of international law, and; (b) their intrinsic value to persuade stakeholders that they are necessary in international sovereign financing to overcome global problems. The fact that the Principles are well-rooted and broadly tested in domestic laws influences these two variables.

Keywords: soft law, informal sources of international law, general principles of law, general principles of international law, soft law instrument, treaties, customary international law

El texto estará disponible gratuitamente en SSRN hasta que se distribuya el libro dentro de un par de meses. Esperamos también que pronto haya una versión española del capítulo y del libro.

It is a great opportunity. The project is very interesting and the position is based at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law in Cambridge. The closing date for applications is 27 February 2012. Good luck with your applications! Here is the information:

British Red Cross Research Fellow

Location: Cambridge
Salary: Between £25,000 – £27,000 per annum
Contract: Fixed Term Contract until 31st December 2013
Hours: Full Time (35hrs per wk)
Closing Date: Midnight 27 February 2012

Overview

The British Red Cross helps people in crisis, whoever and wherever they are. We are part of a global voluntary network, responding to conflicts, natural disasters and individual emergencies.

This British Red Cross (BRC) is a part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (Movement). As such, we work to disseminate knowledge of and to encourage respect for international humanitarian law.  We co-operate closely with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in these areas.

In January 1995, the Intergovernmental Group of Experts for the Protection of War Victims met in Geneva and adopted a series of recommendations aimed at enhancing respect for international humanitarian law, in particular by means of preventive measures that would ensure better knowledge and more effective implementation of the law.

Recommendation II of the Intergovernmental Group of Experts proposed that:

 The ICRC be invited to prepare, with the assistance of experts in IHL [international humanitarian law] representing various geographical regions and different legal systems, and in consultation with experts from governments and international organisations, a report on customary rules of IHL applicable in international and non-international armed conflicts, and to circulate the report to States and competent international bodies.

In December 1995, the 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent endorsed this recommendation and officially mandated the ICRC to prepare a report on customary rules of international humanitarian law applicable in international and non-international armed conflicts.  The outcome of the research carried out pursuant to this mandate was published in 2005 and consists of two volumes. Volume I contains a list of 161 rules deemed to be part of customary law, and commentary thereto, while Volume II contains the supporting material.

Since 2005, Volume I has been translated into Arabic, Chinese, Farsi, French, Russian, Serbian, Spanish and Turkish. Translations of Volume I into Japanese and Portuguese are expected to be published soon. Although there are no current plans to update Volume I, work has been continuing since 2007 to update Volume II. This work is being conducted through a joint project of the ICRC and BRC, based at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge.

The purpose of updating Volume II is for government and military lawyers, legal practitioners, judges, legal personnel of international organisations and non-governmental organisations, legal officers of the Movement and academics to have easy access to accurate, extensive and geographically diverse information on practice in the field of international humanitarian law. It will also facilitate a possible future update of Volume I.

Since August 2010, both Volume I and Volume II have been freely available online through the ICRC’s Customary IHL Database.

Scope

The post holder will be part of a three-person research team based at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law at the University of Cambridge. The work is co-ordinated and overseen on a day-to-day basis by a team leader. The researchers are employed by the BRC and for these purposes, report to the Head of International Law of the BRC.

The substantive work of the researchers is carried out under the direct supervision of the head of project, i.e. the ICRC legal adviser in charge of the project on customary international humanitarian law. The head of project will be in regular communication with the team from Geneva via telephone and email and, from time to time, will travel to Cambridge to meet with the team and evaluate progress.

Overall Purpose of the Post

To up-date the collection of practice supporting the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law.

Click here for more information on this vacancy:  Research Fellow IHL Job Description.Jan 2012.doc

Desde hace algunas semanas está en las librerías el nuevo libro de la colección “derecho, economía y globalización”, que codirige un servidor. Se trata de la traducción del libro Soberanía, la OMC y los fundamentos cambiantes del derecho internacional del profesor John H. Jackson.  Es el primer libro de este afamado profesor que se traduce al castellano y resulta de gran actualidad e interés para una audiencia jurídica académica y profesional, pero también para lectores curiosos por conocer de una forma sencilla y magistral controversias centrales  sobre el concepto de soberanía, el derecho internacional y las organizaciones internacionales, especialmente centradas en el derecho y la práctica de la OMC.

Este es un extracto de la presentación del libro:

“El contenido de este libro y su difusión editorial es especialmente pertinente en el momento actual debido a los importantes y nuevos retos, problemas y dificultades que el mundo de hoy debe afrontar. Algunas de las particularidades de la crisis actual son tratadas en el libro, donde se aborda, por ejemplo, la pregunta sobre cómo se puede gestionar con éxito un mundo globalizado, especialmente su economía. La respuesta reside en limitar la dependencia excesiva del Estado nación y del concepto de soberanía, para reconocer la evidente necesidad de contar con mecanismos internacionales, que han de desarrollar funciones de regulación y control del cumplimiento de las normas desde el presupuesto de su fuerza para obligar, compeler, exigir la observancia de lo acordado y, en este sentido, trascender los sistemas basados en su aceptación voluntaria. Es útil, en este sentido, el estudio del Mecanismo de Solución de Diferencias de la OMC para ponderar sus logros y deficiencias en el debate sobre su, todavía pendiente, proceso de reforma. El libro también analiza algunas «cuestiones jurisprudenciales clave», que muy probablemente son comunes a todos los sistemas de solución de diferencias en cuanto sistemas regulatorios, que tengan perspectivas razonables de éxito. El autor confía en que este libro pueda servir como estímulo a la formulación de ideas y nuevos estudios que permitan la reflexión sobre los desafíos centrales del mundo del siglo XXI.”

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